Routine semen analysis involves the evaluation of semen parameters according to the World Health Organisation guidelines. Semen analysis is a diagnostic tool which allows insight into the male’s fertility status by providing information on how much sperm a patient has, how well the sperm swim, the sperm shape (morphology) and other macroscopic and microscopic evaluations. The patient is required to abstain from sexual intimacy for 2 - 7 days and produce a semen sample via masturbation. Semen analysis is also used as a confirmation tool regarding the success of a vasectomy.
This procedure is performed in the absence of sperm in an ejaculate. This can be due to inadequate hormone production or obstruction due to infection, absence of the vas deferens or vasectomy. Testicular biopsy is a test whereby small samples of tissue is removed from the testis. This tissue is examined under the microscope for the presence of sperm. This procedure can be performed under local anaesthesia or general anaesthesia. It is also performed to confirm the presence of sperm in the testis which may not be ejaculated due to an obstruction e.g. vasectomy.